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Breaking news. – The Herald

Prof Naison Kimathi

Events un the past few years have pointed to serious competition on Africa’s resources and well-orchestrated plan by the Unites States of America and its allies to get rid of all Africans leadership that does not tow their line.

It is not only the liberation movements such as ZANU PF and ANC etc that face the problems but the entire continent. The liberation movements are not safe, they are the most outstanding in supporting China and Russia to due to their links during the struggle and detest being submissive to USA and its allies.

Every election that will be held in Africa and is not won by the proxies of USA and its allies will be viciously disputed and rubbished, even called for a re-run until their candidate wins.

This is going to be a sustained operation in Africa. The USA want to pocket all governments in Africa and use them against China and Russia.  So far the plot has failed in Zimbabwe, where Zambia was used as an adjunct to creating anarchy.

Many people have not paid attention on the Britain’s participation in modern politics since BREXIT, but Britain has done more than concentrate of rebuilding itself as a sovereign state.

Its intelligence organ the M16 has done too much to train a lot of manpower to reposition it in Africa the same way the US and other western European countries have done.

The war of attrition is to get rid of China and Russia from Africa.

While many people have been looking at Ukraine as a country at war, Ukraine has been doing other dangerous things outside its war, like biological laboratories (Bio Labs) creating bacteria that kills specific tribes using the genealogy.

European intelligence networks are agog with news that M16 has been heavily involved in training Ukrainian militia headed by an officer of the Main Intelligence Directorate (MID) of Ukraine Vitally Prashchuk, to destabilise all countries that support Russia or are sympathetic to Russia. The same group, has in the past been involved in the cyber-attack or hacking of the African Union headquarters, trying to get information about African countries.

The primary idea is to get rid of all African leaders who have good relations with Russia and this is no joke. The US has systematically rallied all western countries around Ukraine, against the Russian special military operation but has failed to stop African countries from using Russian military equipment, something which is a subtle sanction, against Russia.

The refusal by many African countries to be told what to do and their decision to participate on the Russia Lieutenant Colonel VY Praschuk, has vast knowledge of Southern Africa and has in the past been to Zimbabwe, South Africa and Zambia on an M16 mission.

He is also known to have travelled to central and east Africa.

Prashchuk, who has experience in “successful liquidations” and participated in M16 operations in Zimbabwe, South Africa, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Zambia and many other countries, has a mandate to destroy all links between Africa countries and Russia.

He is a person you don’t expect in this matrix which makes him very dangerous to the cause.

This group of Ukrainian thugs will wreak havoc in Africa while African leaders have their eyes on US and its other allies. It is a dangerous side kick, that African leaders will not see coming. African leaders must know the type of person they will be dealing with.

Of interest is to know that Prashchuk was 1980 in the urban Sutiski, Tyvrovsky district, Vinnytsia region of Ukraine. He graduated from Kharkiv University of Economics and Law with a degree in Law and the National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine. Between 2014 and 2016, he had “successful liquidations” in hostilities on the territory of Donetsk and Luhansk regions.

In 2015, he joined the 73rd Marine Special Purpose Centre and served in the MID until 2017. He was involved in joint special operations of the MID and British intelligence in Zimbabwe. After being discharged from the reserve in 2019, he was elected to the Verkhovna Rada (lower chamber of parliament) of Ukraine of the 9th convocation in the majority district No. 15 from the political party of Vladimir Zelensky “Servant of the People”. By the beginning of the special military operation of the Russian Federation on the territory of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, he was a reserve officer of the MID.

Today, he has go a new hatchet job to deal with unsuspecting African leaders and their political parties on behalf of M16 and of course of behalf of the US and its allies.

 Naison Kimathi is a Kenyan political scientist working for the African Bureau of Politics in Brussels, Belgium.

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New pathway of diatom-mediated calcification and its impact on the biological pump – EurekAlert

New pathway of diatom-mediated calcification

image: It was discovered that the photosynthesis of S. costatum can induce substantial aragonite precipitation from artificial/natural seawater under significantly lower supersaturation levels required for the precipitation of inorganic CaCO3.
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Credit: ©Science China Press

This study is led by associate professor Yiwen Pan (Institute of Ocean College, Zhejiang University). The team found that the photosynthesis of Skeletonema costatum (S. costatum), a common diatom species, can induce substantial aragonite precipitation from artificial/natural seawater under significantly lower supersaturation levels required for the precipitation of inorganic CaCO3.

Researchers have discovered that during the growth process of S. costatum, there is a significant decrease in total alkalinity (TA) and [Ca2+] in the bulk medium. The precipitated white particles were confirmed to be aragonite crystals through X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that the diatom cells were enveloped by spherical crystals with diameters ranging from 40 to 70 μm, forming aggregates of S. costatum and aragonite. Further investigations found that this extracellular calcification process is primarily driven by the combined effect of elevated extracellular CO32- concentration and the adsorption and aggregation of Ca2+ during photosynthesis. This enables S. costatum to induce substantial aragonite precipitation at significantly lower supersaturation levels than those required for inorganic CaCO3 precipitation. The team also observed TA deviation from the conservative mixing during S. costatum blooms in the East China Sea. This further supports the possibility of a new diatom-mediated calcification pathway occurring in the ocean.

This breakthrough finding has profound implications for our understanding of oceanic carbon cycling. Diatoms are the most important primary producers and organic carbon transporters in the ocean. The newly discovered diatom-mediated extracellular calcification pathway may establish a novel connection between the particle inorganic carbon pump and the organic carbon pump. On one hand, the release of CO2 during the extracellular calcification process is considered as “counter carbonate pump.” However, in the diatom-mediated extracellular calcification process, due to the maintenance of high pH in the water, the released CO2 may be more readily absorbed by algae, rather than being released into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the calcification, through the formation of aggregates of diatoms and aragonite, enhances the efficiency of organic carbon sinking and increases the transport capacity of the biological carbon pump.

This study not only changes our understanding of carbon cycling in marine ecosystems but also provides new perspectives for the ocean carbon cycle research.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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Tetris® 99 – 35th MAXIMUS CUP Gameplay Trailer – Nintendo Switch – Nintendo of America

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New insights into the atmosphere and star of an exoplanet – Science Daily

Astronomers led by a team at Université de Montréal has made important progress in understanding the intriguing TRAPPIST-1 exoplanetary system, which was first discovered in 2016 amid speculation it could someday provide a place for humans to live.

Not only does the new research shed light on the nature of TRAPPIST-1 b, the exoplanet orbiting closest to the system’s star, it has also shown the importance of parent stars when studying exoplanets.

Published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, the findings by astronomers at UdeM’s Trottier Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx) and colleagues in Canada, the U.K. and U.S. shed light on the complex interplay between stellar activity and exoplanet characteristics.

Captured the attention

TRAPPIST-1, a star much smaller and cooler than our sun located approximately 40 light-years away from Earth, has captured the attention of scientists and space enthusiasts alike since the discovery of its seven Earth-sized exoplanets seven years ago. These worlds, tightly packed around their star with three of them within its habitable zone, have fueled hopes of finding potentially habitable environments beyond our solar system.

Led by iREx doctoral student Olivia Lim, the researchers employed the powerful James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to observe TRAPPIST-1 b. Their observations were collected as part of the largest Canadian-led General Observers (GO) program during the JWST’s first year of operations. (This program also included observations of three other planets in the system, TRAPPIST-1 c, g and h.) TRAPPIST-1 b was observed during two transits — the moment when the planet passes in front of its star — using the Canadian-made NIRISS instrument aboard the JWST.

“These are the very first spectroscopic observations of any TRAPPIST-1 planet obtained by the JWST, and we’ve been waiting for them for years” said Lim, the GO program’s principal Investigator.


She and her colleagues used the technique of transmission spectroscopy to peer deeper into the distant world. By analysing the central star’s light after it has passed through the exoplanet’s atmosphere during a transit, astronomers can see the unique fingerprint left behind by the molecules and atoms found within that atmosphere.

‘Just a small subset’

“This is just a small subset of many more observations of this unique planetary system yet to come and to be analysed,” adds René Doyon, Principal Investigator of the NIRISS instrument and co-author on the study. “These first observations highlight the power of NIRISS and the JWST in general to probe the thin atmospheres around rocky planets.”

The astronomers’ key finding was just how significant stellar activity and contamination are when trying to determine the nature of an exoplanet. Stellar contamination refers to the influence of the star’s own features, such as dark spots and bright faculae, on the measurements of the exoplanet’s atmosphere.

The team found compelling evidence that stellar contamination plays a crucial role in shaping the transmission spectra of TRAPPIST-1 b and, likely, the other planets in the system. The central star’s activity can create “ghost signals” that may fool the observer into thinking they have detected a particular molecule in the exoplanet’s atmosphere.

This result underscores the importance of considering stellar contamination when planning future observations of all exoplanetary systems, the sceintists say. This is especially true for systems like TRAPPIST-1, since the system is centred around a red dwarf star which can be particularly active with starspots and frequent flare events.


“In addition to the contamination from stellar spots and faculae, we saw a stellar flare, an unpredictable event during which the star looks brighter for several minutes or hours,” said Lim. “This flare affected our measurement of the amount of light blocked by the planet. Such signatures of stellar activity are difficult to model but we need to account for them to ensure that we interpret the data correctly.”

A range of models explored

Based on their collected JWST observations, Lim and her team explored a range of atmospheric models for TRAPPIST-1 b, examining various possible compositions and scenarios.

They found they could confidently rule out the existence of cloud-free, hydrogen-rich atmospheres — in other words, there appears to be no clear, extended atmosphere around TRAPPIST-1 b. However, the data could not confidently exclude thinner atmospheres, such as those composed of pure water, carbon dioxide, or methane, nor an atmosphere similar to that of Titan, a moon of Saturn and the only moon in the Solar System with its own atmosphere.

These results are generally consistent with previous (photometric, and not spectroscopic) JWST observations of TRAPPIST-1 b with the MIRI instrument. The new study also proves that Canada’s NIRISS instrument is a highly performing, sensitive tool able to probe for atmospheres on Earth-sized exoplanets at impressive levels.

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