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Global Forecast-Celsius – SFGATE

City/Town, Country;Friday’s Weather Condition;Friday’s High Temp (C);Friday’s Low Temp (C);Saturday’s Weather Condition;Saturday’s High Temp (C);Saturday’s Low Temp (C);Saturday’s Wind Direction;Saturday’s Wind Speed (KPH);Saturday’s Humidity (%);Saturday’s Chance of Precip. (%);Saturday’s UV Index

Abidjan, Ivory Coast;An afternoon shower;29;25;A thunderstorm;29;25;S;13;77%;88%;8

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;Sunny and hot;35;24;Sunny and hot;34;23;NNW;11;45%;0%;5

Aleppo, Syria;Sunny;21;10;Sunny and beautiful;22;8;ENE;8;55%;1%;3

Algiers, Algeria;Clearing;23;14;Sunshine and nice;23;13;E;11;59%;2%;3

Amsterdam, Netherlands;Mostly cloudy;14;6;Mostly sunny;15;7;ESE;10;83%;2%;2

Anchorage, United States;Rain and snow shower;2;-1;A shower in the p.m.;4;0;ESE;13;71%;85%;0

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan;Decreasing clouds;15;2;Mostly sunny;14;4;E;9;61%;66%;3

Astana, Kazakhstan;A little p.m. snow;-2;-4;A bit of a.m. snow;0;-2;WSW;30;88%;94%;0

Asuncion, Paraguay;Warmer;31;22;Downpours;30;22;ENE;15;75%;99%;6

Athens, Greece;Mostly sunny;21;13;A couple of showers;16;12;NNW;14;71%;86%;1

Auckland, New Zealand;Rain and a t-storm;23;16;Clouds breaking;21;15;WNW;12;73%;70%;10

Baghdad, Iraq;Mostly sunny;30;15;A shower;25;13;E;12;65%;82%;3

Banda Aceh, Indonesia;Rain and a t-storm;29;24;A couple of t-storms;27;24;E;9;84%;98%;3

Bangalore, India;Rain, a thunderstorm;24;20;A thunderstorm;24;20;NE;13;84%;98%;3

Bangkok, Thailand;Partly sunny and hot;35;27;Clouds and sun, hot;35;26;N;10;53%;32%;6

Barcelona, Spain;Breezy in the p.m.;21;16;Periods of sun;20;12;NNE;14;78%;28%;2

Beijing, China;Rain and drizzle;13;10;Partly sunny, breezy;14;1;NNE;27;35%;44%;1

Belgrade, Serbia;Partly sunny;14;6;Fog, then some sun;14;5;E;8;73%;18%;2

Berlin, Germany;Sun and clouds;17;6;Partly sunny;15;8;ESE;6;59%;0%;1

Bogota, Colombia;A stray thunderstorm;18;9;Cloudy, a t-storm;18;9;NNW;8;84%;91%;4

Brasilia, Brazil;Afternoon showers;28;18;A stray thunderstorm;26;18;ENE;9;81%;71%;7

Bratislava, Slovakia;Low clouds and fog;14;7;Fog, then some sun;15;5;E;5;70%;5%;2

Brussels, Belgium;Clouds and sun;14;8;Partly sunny;18;9;SE;7;78%;1%;2

Bucharest, Romania;Periods of rain;12;3;Partly sunny;14;3;NE;9;71%;13%;2

Budapest, Hungary;Fog, then some sun;14;6;Fog, then some sun;12;4;ESE;7;79%;13%;2

Buenos Aires, Argentina;Very warm;30;19;Mostly cloudy;27;19;ESE;17;59%;23%;5

Bujumbura, Burundi;A little rain;29;19;Cloudy with showers;26;19;NNE;12;54%;95%;4

Busan, South Korea;Mostly sunny, nice;21;14;Breezy in the p.m.;22;16;SSW;17;77%;90%;3

Cairo, Egypt;Clouding up;26;15;Mostly sunny, nice;26;16;N;13;44%;2%;4

Cape Town, South Africa;Partly sunny;24;15;Mostly sunny, nice;21;14;WSW;30;65%;57%;11

Caracas, Venezuela;Inc. clouds;25;20;Brief p.m. showers;28;20;ENE;5;65%;78%;3

Chennai, India;Rain and a t-storm;28;25;Showers, some heavy;29;25;NNE;11;83%;100%;2

Chicago, United States;Cooler with some sun;9;-1;Colder;4;-3;NW;24;59%;59%;1

Colombo, Sri Lanka;A t-storm around;29;24;Morning showers;29;24;E;10;80%;100%;3

Copenhagen, Denmark;A shower in places;13;9;Rather cloudy;15;9;WSW;10;85%;55%;0

Dakar, Senegal;Clearing and humid;31;25;Sun and some clouds;30;25;N;20;65%;0%;6

Dallas, United States;Breezy;13;1;Sunny, but cool;12;0;NE;15;40%;2%;4

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania;A stray a.m. t-storm;32;24;Rain, a thunderstorm;32;23;E;16;62%;62%;7

Delhi, India;Hazy sunshine;27;15;Hazy sunshine;28;14;NW;9;53%;0%;4

Denver, United States;Clearing and cold;5;-6;Mostly sunny;10;-3;SW;11;28%;0%;3

Dhaka, Bangladesh;Sunny;30;20;Hazy sun;30;20;NNW;10;58%;0%;5

Dili, East Timor;Rain, a thunderstorm;33;24;A p.m. t-storm;32;24;ESE;9;72%;82%;7

Dublin, Ireland;Windy, a p.m. shower;17;12;A shower in the a.m.;14;11;SSE;18;77%;77%;2

Dushanbe, Tajikistan;Partly sunny;14;1;Mostly sunny;14;2;NNE;10;38%;5%;3

Gibraltar, Gibraltar;Cloudy;19;16;Mostly sunny, nice;22;17;ENE;19;74%;3%;3

Hanoi, Vietnam;A couple of showers;30;22;Some sun;31;22;SSE;9;69%;6%;5

Harare, Zimbabwe;A t-storm in spots;27;15;A stray thunderstorm;26;15;ENE;13;65%;55%;8

Havana, Cuba;A t-storm around;29;20;Partly sunny;29;20;NNE;9;72%;44%;4

Helsinki, Finland;Rainy times;13;9;Partly sunny, breezy;13;3;WNW;24;64%;0%;1

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;A t-storm or two;33;26;A t-storm or two;32;24;SE;9;73%;93%;4

Hong Kong, China;Sunshine and humid;28;22;Mostly sunny;28;21;ENE;12;72%;1%;5

Honolulu, United States;Breezy this morning;28;22;A morning shower;28;22;NE;20;60%;74%;5

Hyderabad, India;Clouds and sun;30;18;Mainly cloudy;31;18;NE;14;46%;26%;3

Islamabad, Pakistan;Sunny and very warm;30;9;Sunny and nice;27;9;NNE;9;39%;0%;4

Istanbul, Turkey;Becoming cloudy;18;12;Breezy in the p.m.;16;14;NE;23;75%;17%;1

Jakarta, Indonesia;Rain and a t-storm;32;24;A t-storm in spots;31;25;WSW;13;78%;82%;6

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia;Not as hot;34;26;Plenty of sunshine;32;26;N;10;57%;4%;5

Johannesburg, South Africa;A stray a.m. t-storm;22;14;A stray thunderstorm;21;14;N;16;81%;94%;6

Kabul, Afghanistan;Plenty of sunshine;18;-1;Clouding up;16;-1;NNE;5;35%;2%;4

Karachi, Pakistan;Mostly sunny;34;21;Plenty of sun;33;20;W;11;44%;0%;5

Kathmandu, Nepal;Hazy sunshine;23;10;Hazy sunshine;25;9;S;7;42%;3%;5

Khartoum, Sudan;Partly sunny;35;19;Mostly sunny;34;18;NNW;18;21%;0%;7

Kiev, Ukraine;A shower in spots;8;4;Mostly cloudy;10;5;WNW;16;73%;47%;0

Kingston, Jamaica;A t-storm around;31;26;A thunderstorm;31;26;N;11;71%;84%;5

Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo;A t-storm in spots;32;22;A stray a.m. t-storm;32;23;SSW;9;69%;60%;10

Kolkata, India;Very warm;30;22;Hazy sunshine;32;20;N;11;51%;0%;5

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;Downpours;29;24;A t-storm or two;31;24;NNE;8;81%;99%;4

La Paz, Bolivia;Increasing clouds;17;0;Breezy in the p.m.;17;-1;SSE;15;9%;0%;14

Lagos, Nigeria;Clearing;33;24;A t-storm in spots;30;24;SSW;11;74%;64%;9

Lima, Peru;Breezy in the p.m.;20;15;Low clouds;21;15;SSE;14;73%;2%;3

Lisbon, Portugal;Nice with sunshine;21;13;Sunny and pleasant;21;14;WSW;10;72%;5%;3

London, United Kingdom;Decreasing clouds;16;8;Mostly sunny, nice;18;10;SE;9;86%;1%;2

Los Angeles, United States;Partly sunny;21;9;Mostly sunny, cool;20;10;SE;9;39%;1%;3

Luanda, Angola;Some sun, pleasant;29;23;Clearing;29;23;SSW;15;66%;16%;10

Madrid, Spain;A p.m. t-storm;17;10;A thunderstorm;18;8;E;10;71%;88%;2

Male, Maldives;A t-storm in spots;30;26;Thundershowers;30;27;W;19;77%;88%;3

Manaus, Brazil;A t-storm around;33;24;Partly sunny;34;25;N;7;65%;44%;11

Manila, Philippines;A t-storm around;31;24;A stray a.m. t-storm;32;25;E;8;73%;55%;3

Melbourne, Australia;Cooler in the p.m.;24;12;Mostly cloudy;21;17;WNW;17;67%;41%;3

Mexico City, Mexico;Sunny, nice and warm;25;10;Lots of sun, nice;25;10;NNW;8;41%;19%;6

Miami, United States;Partly sunny, humid;29;22;A stray p.m. t-storm;29;21;SW;13;71%;51%;4

Minsk, Belarus;A morning shower;9;7;Breezy in the p.m.;10;6;WNW;22;85%;26%;0

Mogadishu, Somalia;Warm this morning;36;24;Partly sunny;33;24;SE;17;60%;55%;9

Montevideo, Uruguay;Partly sunny;25;16;Breezy in the p.m.;25;18;ENE;19;61%;9%;5

Montreal, Canada;A p.m. shower or two;17;9;Tropical rainstorm;13;1;W;12;73%;82%;0

Moscow, Russia;A p.m. shower or two;9;6;Rain and drizzle;11;4;WNW;20;83%;62%;1

Mumbai, India;Hazy sunshine;33;23;Hazy sunshine;34;23;NNE;12;50%;1%;6

Nairobi, Kenya;A t-storm around;25;15;A t-storm in spots;24;15;NE;17;69%;73%;12

New York, United States;Stormy;20;18;Tropical rainstorm;22;10;W;32;65%;94%;1

Nicosia, Cyprus;A shower in the a.m.;22;13;Mostly sunny, nice;24;13;NNW;11;54%;2%;3

Novosibirsk, Russia;A little snow;0;-7;Snow;-2;-3;WSW;23;70%;83%;0

Osaka-shi, Japan;Sunny and pleasant;22;12;Partly sunny;23;12;ESE;8;63%;90%;3

Oslo, Norway;Cloudy and breezy;13;9;Partly sunny, nice;13;4;NNE;8;70%;7%;1

Ottawa, Canada;A little rain;17;9;Cloudy, breezy, mild;11;-2;WNW;22;61%;84%;1

Pago Pago, American Samoa;A shower in the p.m.;30;26;A morning shower;30;26;ENE;17;71%;82%;9

Panama City, Panama;A p.m. thunderstorm;29;23;Rain and a t-storm;29;23;NNW;7;81%;96%;2

Paramaribo, Suriname;A stray t-shower;32;24;A stray p.m. t-storm;31;24;ENE;9;80%;62%;4

Paris, France;Low clouds and fog;14;9;Fog, then some sun;18;9;E;8;78%;0%;2

Perth, Australia;Partly sunny, breezy;21;4;Breezy with some sun;20;10;SE;22;49%;5%;5

Phnom Penh, Cambodia;A t-storm around;33;26;A t-storm around;34;25;N;10;64%;55%;7

Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea;Clouds and sun, warm;37;23;A t-storm around;35;24;SE;19;59%;56%;9

Port-au-prince, Haiti;A stray thunderstorm;33;21;A p.m. t-storm;33;21;SE;10;59%;63%;5

Prague, Czech Republic;Low clouds and fog;12;5;Fog, then some sun;14;3;ENE;3;67%;0%;2

Pyongyang, North Korea;Turning sunny;20;10;A little p.m. rain;19;5;WNW;20;78%;86%;1

Quito, Ecuador;A thundershower;19;9;Occasional rain;18;9;NE;8;75%;98%;6

Rabat, Morocco;Sunny and pleasant;23;13;Nice with sunshine;26;12;SE;8;52%;0%;3

Recife, Brazil;An afternoon shower;31;25;A little a.m. rain;30;25;E;13;69%;88%;5

Reykjavik, Iceland;Afternoon showers;6;5;A little a.m. rain;6;5;E;17;83%;57%;1

Riga, Latvia;A shower or two;13;9;A shower in spots;15;6;WNW;16;82%;45%;1

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;A p.m. thunderstorm;27;22;Cloudy, a t-storm;27;22;WNW;11;81%;89%;6

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Windy this morning;30;17;Sunny and very warm;31;18;SSE;13;21%;0%;5

Rome, Italy;Sunny intervals;22;9;Variable cloudiness;19;9;NE;7;70%;14%;1

Saint Petersburg, Russia;Rain and drizzle;10;8;Sunny and mild;12;4;WNW;16;81%;11%;1

San Francisco, United States;Mostly sunny, cool;16;9;A stray p.m. shower;14;8;N;15;63%;47%;3

San Jose, Costa Rica;Plenty of clouds;24;18;Rain and a t-storm;23;18;NE;10;84%;99%;4

San Juan, Puerto Rico;A shower;29;24;A shower or two;30;24;ESE;16;75%;97%;3

San Salvador, El Salvador;A stray p.m. t-storm;25;19;A stray p.m. t-storm;25;19;NE;9;92%;55%;6

Sana’a, Yemen;Sunny and beautiful;27;5;Sunny and pleasant;25;5;ENE;9;27%;1%;7

Santiago, Chile;Low clouds;20;10;Cloudy, p.m. rain;18;9;SSW;10;62%;95%;3

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic;A stray thunderstorm;31;23;A shower;30;22;NNE;11;77%;85%;6

Sao Paulo, Brazil;Sunny and beautiful;21;11;Sunny and pleasant;21;12;ESE;12;68%;6%;3

Seattle, United States;A shower or two;9;2;Clouds and sun;9;3;ESE;8;69%;11%;2

Seoul, South Korea;Clearing and mild;21;12;A little p.m. rain;21;11;WSW;16;72%;100%;1

Shanghai, China;Rain and drizzle;23;20;Partly sunny;26;16;NNW;16;74%;66%;4

Singapore, Singapore;Downpours;31;26;Rain, a thunderstorm;30;25;NNE;6;81%;88%;5

Sofia, Bulgaria;A little a.m. rain;12;4;A couple of showers;9;5;E;10;67%;86%;2

St. John’s, Antigua and Barbuda;A couple of showers;29;24;An afternoon shower;30;24;E;16;71%;86%;6

Stockholm, Sweden;Windy this morning;14;11;Breezy in the a.m.;16;3;SW;14;77%;1%;1

Sydney, Australia;Mostly cloudy;26;17;Mostly cloudy;26;19;S;21;62%;33%;9

Taipei City, Taiwan;Decreasing clouds;27;22;Very warm and humid;32;22;SE;10;75%;3%;5

Tallinn, Estonia;Windy with showers;12;12;Windy;14;6;WNW;32;70%;47%;1

Tashkent, Uzbekistan;Sunny;12;1;Hazy sun;11;2;NE;8;72%;2%;3

Tbilisi, Georgia;Partly sunny;13;5;Sunny and mild;16;6;NNW;9;52%;2%;3

Tehran, Iran;An afternoon shower;17;8;Partly sunny;17;7;S;11;35%;13%;3

Tel Aviv, Israel;Sunny and pleasant;26;14;Sunny and nice;27;15;ENE;10;49%;0%;4

Tirana, Albania;Inc. clouds;22;9;Mostly cloudy;19;10;ENE;5;51%;44%;1

Tokyo, Japan;Sunny and nice;20;12;Partly sunny;21;16;SSW;14;71%;61%;3

Toronto, Canada;Tropical rainstorm;14;7;A shower in the p.m.;9;2;W;17;66%;92%;1

Tripoli, Libya;An afternoon shower;23;16;Mostly sunny;23;15;SE;9;67%;18%;4

Tunis, Tunisia;Clouds and sun, nice;24;14;Nice with some sun;23;13;NW;9;74%;67%;3

Ulan Bator, Mongolia;Colder;-4;-21;Increasing clouds;-2;-14;ESE;9;60%;6%;2

Vancouver, Canada;Decreasing clouds;6;3;Plenty of sunshine;9;3;ENE;5;64%;4%;2

Vienna, Austria;Fog, then some sun;13;7;Fog, then some sun;15;5;ESE;5;63%;3%;2

Vientiane, Laos;Mostly sunny and hot;33;23;Sunny and very warm;31;22;NW;7;58%;3%;6

Vilnius, Lithuania;A p.m. shower or two;9;8;Breezy with a shower;12;6;WNW;22;86%;46%;0

Warsaw, Poland;Clouds and sun;11;3;Partly sunny;11;5;NW;12;83%;41%;1

Wellington, New Zealand;Milder, p.m. rain;20;14;Clouds and sun;20;15;NNW;19;82%;60%;6

Yangon, Myanmar;Partly sunny and hot;34;22;Sunny and hot;35;22;NW;9;54%;1%;6

Yerevan, Armenia;Rain and drizzle;11;2;Mostly sunny;12;0;NE;4;63%;4%;3


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iPhone users can share car keys in Wallet with non-iPhone users – TechCrunch

Apple iPhone users with iOS 16.1 software can now share car keys in their Wallet with non-iPhone users, starting with Google Pixel devices. In the future, that capability will extend to other devices with Android 12+, according to Apple.

Apple says it has been working with the Internet Engineering Task Force and other industry players to establish a standard for sharing digital keys across platforms. Keys can be shared via email, text message and WhatsApp.

When Apple initially launched digital car keys in 2020, iPhone users could share their keys through iMessage, Apple’s instant messaging service.

Of course, key sharing only works on cars that are compatible with digital car keys. Apple didn’t share a list of compatible cars, and instead directed users to contact their car manufacturer or dealership for an answer. To our knowledge, there are several 2021 and 2022 models of BMW that can be unlocked and used via digital car keys on iPhones, Google Pixels, Samsung Galaxy devices. Both Apple’s and Google’s digital car keys also recently arrived on the 2022 Kia Niro, the 2022 Genesis G90 and the all-electric 2022 Genesis GV60.

Apple’s digital car keys can usually be added to the Apple Watch (Series 5 or later or the Apple Watch SE) with the latest version of watchOS, according to a post from Apple. It’s not clear if this cross-platform capability will be available for Apple Watch users just yet.

Apple’s digital car keys are one of the company’s many features that allow users to carry less stuff around. Perhaps one of the company’s most popular examples of this is Apple Pay, which syncs a user’s credit, debit or prepaid card to their phone. In addition, iPhone users in certain states can now carry their driver’s license or state ID in their Wallet, and in select Hyatt hotels, users can unlock their rooms with a digitally stored key.

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Wall Street ends mixed; Salesforce selloff pressures Dow – Reuters

  • Salesforce drops on co-CEO exit plan
  • Dollar General falls on slashing annual profit view
  • U.S. manufacturing shrinks for first time in 2-1/2 years in Nov
  • Indexes end: S&P 500 -0.08%, Nasdaq +0.13%, Dow -0.56%

Dec 1 (Reuters) – Wall Street ended mixed on Thursday as a selloff in Salesforce weighed on the Dow, while traders digested U.S. data that suggested the Federal Reserve’s interest rate hikes are working.

On Wednesday, the S&P 500 surged over 3% on optimism the Fed might moderate its campaign of interest rate hikes.

U.S. manufacturing activity shrank in November for the first time in 2-1/2 years as higher borrowing costs weighed on demand for goods, data showed, evidence the Fed’s rate hikes have cooled the economy.

The personal consumption expenditures (PCE) price index rose 0.3%, the same as in September, and over the 12 months through October the index increased 6.0% after advancing 6.3% the prior month.

Excluding the volatile food and energy components, the PCE price index rose 0.2%, one-tenth less than expected, after gaining 0.5% in September.

“On a normal day, the package of data this morning would be pretty risk-on, but after the rally yesterday, I think it’s not quite good enough to push another leg higher,” said Ross Mayfield, an investment strategy analyst at Baird.
Wednesday’s rally drove the S&P 500 index (.SPX) above its 200-day moving average for the first time since April after Fed Chair Jerome Powell said it was time to slow the pace of interest rate hikes.

Traders now see a 79% chance the Fed will increase its key benchmark rate by 50 basis points in December and a 21% chance it will hike rates by 75 basis points.

Salesforce Inc (CRM.N) tumbled 8.3% after the software maker said Bret Taylor would step down as co-chief executive officer in January.

Dollar General Corp (DG.N) fell 7.5% after the discount retailer cut its annual profit forecast, while Costco Wholesale Corp (COST.O) dropped 6.6% after the membership-only retail chain reported slower sales growth in November.

The S&P 500 declined 0.08% to end the session at 4,076.79 points.

The Nasdaq gained 0.13% to 11,482.45 points, lifted by gains of over 1% each in Nvidia (NVDA.O) and Facebook-owner Meta Platforms (META.O).

Dow Jones Industrial Average declined 0.56% to 34,396.53 points, pulled lower by Salesforce.

Of the 11 S&P 500 sector indexes, seven declined, led lower by financials (.SPSY), down 0.71%, followed by a 0.47% loss in consumer staples (.SPLRCS).

A U.S. Labor Department report on Thursday showed initial claims for state unemployment benefits dropped 16,000 to a seasonally adjusted 225,000 for the week ended Nov. 26.

Investors now await nonfarm payrolls data on Friday for clues about how rate hikes have affected the labor market.

With a month left in 2022, the S&P 500 is down about 14% year to date, and the Nasdaq has lost about 27%.

Advancing issues outnumbered falling ones within the S&P 500 (.AD.SPX) by a 1.1-to-one ratio.

The S&P 500 posted 32 new highs and no new lows; the Nasdaq recorded 118 new highs and 91 new lows.

Volume on U.S. exchanges was relatively heavy, with 11.7 billion shares traded, compared to an average of 11.3 billion shares over the previous 20 sessions.

Reporting by Ankika Biswas and Shreyashi Sanyal in Bengaluru, and by Noel Randewich in Oakland, Calif.; Editing by Shounak Dasgupta and David Gregorio

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Physicists Create Theoretical Wormhole Using Quantum Computer – SciTechDaily

Traversable Wormholes Quantum Experiment

Artwork depicting a quantum experiment that observes traversable wormhole behavior. Credit: inqnet/A. Mueller (Caltech)

Physicists observe wormhole dynamics using a quantum computer in a step toward studying quantum gravity in the lab.

For the first time, scientists have developed a quantum experiment that allows them to study the dynamics, or behavior, of a special kind of theoretical wormhole. The experiment allows researchers to probe connections between theoretical wormholes and quantum physics, a prediction of so-called quantum gravity. Quantum gravity refers to a set of theories that seek to connect gravity with quantum physics, two fundamental and well-studied descriptions of nature that appear inherently incompatible with each other. Note that the experiment has not created an actual wormhole (a rupture in space and time known as an Einstein-Rosen bridge).

“We found a quantum system that exhibits key properties of a gravitational wormhole yet is sufficiently small to implement on today’s quantum hardware,” says Maria Spiropulu, the principal investigator of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science research program Quantum Communication Channels for Fundamental Physics (QCCFP) and the Shang-Yi Ch’en Professor of Physics at Caltech.

“This work constitutes a step toward a larger program of testing quantum gravity physics using a quantum computer. It does not substitute for direct probes of quantum gravity in the same way as other planned experiments that might probe quantum gravity effects in the future using quantum sensing, but it does offer a powerful testbed to exercise ideas of quantum gravity.”

The research was published in the journal Nature on December 1. Daniel Jafferis of Harvard University and Alexander Zlokapa (BS ’21), a former undergraduate student at Caltech who started on this project for his bachelor’s thesis with Spiropulu and has since moved on to graduate school at <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

MIT is an acronym for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is a prestigious private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts that was founded in 1861. It is organized into five Schools: architecture and planning; engineering; humanities, arts, and social sciences; management; and science. MIT's impact includes many scientific breakthroughs and technological advances. Their stated goal is to make a better world through education, research, and innovation.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]”>MIT are the study’s first authors.

Wormhole Einstein Rosen Bridge Illustration

This illustration of a wormhole (Einstein-Rosen bridge) depicts a tunnel with two ends at separate points in spacetime. A wormhole is a speculative structure connecting disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations.

Wormholes are bridges between two remote regions in spacetime. They have not been observed experimentally, but scientists have theorized about their existence and properties for close to 100 years. In 1935, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen described wormholes as tunnels through the fabric of spacetime in accordance with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which describes gravity as a curvature of spacetime. Researchers call wormholes Einstein–Rosen bridges after the two physicists who invoked them, while the term “wormhole” itself was coined by physicist John Wheeler in the 1950s.

The notion that wormholes and quantum physics, specifically entanglement (a phenomenon in which two particles can remain connected across vast distances), may have a connection was first proposed in theoretical research by Juan Maldacena and Leonard Susskind in 2013. The physicists speculated that wormholes (or “ER”) were equivalent to entanglement (also known as “EPR” after Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky [PhD ’28], and Nathan Rosen, who first proposed the concept). In essence, this work established a new kind of theoretical link between the worlds of gravity and quantum physics. “It was a very daring and poetic idea,” says Spiropulu of the ER = EPR work.

Later, in 2017, Jafferis, along with his colleagues Ping Gao and Aron Wall, extended the ER = EPR idea to not just wormholes but traversable wormholes. The scientists concocted a scenario in which negative repulsive energy holds a wormhole open long enough for something to pass through from one end to the other. The researchers showed that this gravitational description of a traversable wormhole is equivalent to a process known as quantum teleportation. In quantum teleportation, a protocol that has been experimentally demonstrated over long distances via optical fiber and over the air, information is transported across space using the principles of quantum entanglement.

The present work explores the equivalence of wormholes with quantum teleportation. The Caltech-led team performed the first experiments that probe the idea that information traveling from one point in space to another can be described in either the language of gravity (the wormholes) or the language of quantum physics (quantum entanglement).

A key finding that inspired possible experiments occurred in 2015, when Caltech’s Alexei Kitaev, the Ronald and Maxine Linde Professor of Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, showed that a simple quantum system could exhibit the same duality later described by Gao, Jafferis, and Wall, such that the model’s quantum dynamics are equivalent to quantum gravity effects. This Sachdev–Ye–Kitaev, or SYK model (named after Kitaev, and Subir Sachdev and Jinwu Ye, two other researchers who worked on its development previously) led researchers to suggest that some theoretical wormhole ideas could be studied more deeply by doing experiments on quantum processors.

Furthering these ideas, in 2019, Jafferis and Gao showed that by entangling two SYK models, researchers should be able to perform wormhole teleportation and thus produce and measure the dynamical properties expected of traversable wormholes.

In the new study, the team of physicists performed this type of experiment for the first time. They used a “baby” SYK-like model prepared to preserve gravitational properties, and they observed the wormhole dynamics on a quantum device at Google, namely the Sycamore quantum processor. To accomplish this, the team had to first reduce the SYK model to a simplified form, a feat they achieved using machine learning tools on conventional computers.

“We employed learning techniques to find and prepare a simple SYK-like quantum system that could be encoded in the current quantum architectures and that would preserve the gravitational properties,” says Spiropulu. “In other words, we simplified the microscopic description of the SYK quantum system and studied the resulting effective model that we found on the quantum processor. It is curious and surprising how the optimization on one characteristic of the model preserved the other metrics! We have plans for more tests to get better insights on the model itself.”

In the experiment, the researchers inserted a qubit—the quantum equivalent of a bit in conventional silicon-based computers—into one of their SYK-like systems and observed the information emerge from the other system. The information traveled from one quantum system to the other via quantum teleportation—or, speaking in the complementary language of gravity, the quantum information passed through the traversable wormhole.

“We performed a kind of quantum teleportation equivalent to a traversable wormhole in the gravity picture. To do this, we had to simplify the quantum system to the smallest example that preserves gravitational characteristics so we could implement it on the Sycamore quantum processor at Google,” says Zlokapa.

Co-author Samantha Davis, a graduate student at Caltech, adds, “It took a really long time to arrive at the results, and we surprised ourselves with the outcome.”

“The near-term significance of this type of experiment is that the gravitational perspective provides a simple way to understand an otherwise mysterious many-particle quantum phenomenon,” says John Preskill, the Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at Caltech and director of the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter (IQIM). “What I found interesting about this new Google experiment is that, via machine learning, they were able to make the system simple enough to simulate on an existing quantum machine while retaining a reasonable caricature of what the gravitation picture predicts.”

In the study, the physicists report wormhole behavior expected both from the perspectives of gravity and from quantum physics. For example, while quantum information can be transmitted across the device, or teleported, in a variety of ways, the experimental process was shown to be equivalent, at least in some ways, to what might happen if information traveled through a wormhole. To do this, the team attempted to “prop open the wormhole” using pulses of either negative repulsive energy pulse or the opposite, positive energy. They observed key signatures of a traversable wormhole only when the equivalent of negative energy was applied, which is consistent with how wormholes are expected to behave.

“The high fidelity of the quantum processor we used was essential,” says Spiropulu. “If the error rates were higher by 50 percent, the signal would have been entirely obscured. If they were half we would have 10 times the signal!”

In the future, the researchers hope to extend this work to more complex quantum circuits. Though bona fide quantum computers may still be years away, the team plans to continue to perform experiments of this nature on existing <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

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“The relationship between quantum entanglement, spacetime, and quantum gravity is one of the most important questions in fundamental physics and an active area of theoretical research,” says Spiropulu. “We are excited to take this small step toward testing these ideas on quantum hardware and will keep going.”

Reference: “Traversable wormhole dynamics on a quantum processor” by Daniel Jafferis, Alexander Zlokapa, Joseph D. Lykken, David K. Kolchmeyer, Samantha I. Davis, Nikolai Lauk, Hartmut Neven and Maria Spiropulu, 30 November 2022, Nature.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05424-3

The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science via the QCCFP research program. Other authors include: Joseph Lykken of Fermilab; David Kolchmeyer, formerly at Harvard and now a postdoc at MIT; Nikolai Lauk, formerly a postdoc at Caltech; and Hartmut Neven of Google.

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