- OPEC+ producers agree to nearly 2 million bpd of voluntary cuts
- Saudi Arabia will extend a voluntary cut of 1 million bpd
- Oil prices fell sharply on output cut compliance skepticism
Gas accretion by a galaxy’s central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the resultant energetic feedback by the accreting active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the gas in and around a galaxy are two tightly intertwined but competing processes that play a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies. Observations of galaxy clusters have shown how the plasma jets emitted by an AGN heat the intracluster medium, preventing cooling of the cluster gas and thereby the infall of this gas onto the central galaxy. On the other hand, outflows of multiphase gas, driven by the jets, can cool as they rise into the intracluster medium, leading to filaments of colder gas. The fate of this cold gas is unclear, but it has been suggested that it plays a role in feeding the central SMBH. We present the results of reprocessed CO(2-1) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the cold molecular gas in the central regions of NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster and which hosts the radio-loud AGN 3C 84 (Perseus A). These data show in detail how kiloparsec-sized cold gas filaments resulting from the jet-induced cooling of cluster gas are flowing towards the galaxy centre and how they feed the circum-nuclear accretion disk (100 pc diameter) of the SMBH. Thus, cooled gas can, in this way, play a role in feeding the AGN. These results complete our view of the feedback loop of how an AGN can impact its surroundings and how the effects of this impact maintain the AGN activity.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 digital issues and online access to articles
$119.00 per year
only $9.92 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The calibrated data cube is available from https://astrodrive.astro.rug.nl/index.php/s/g1y6QlCeGFd5XiG, or from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Russell, H. R. et al. Driving massive molecular gas flows in central cluster galaxies with AGN feedback. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 490, 3025–3045 (2019).
Fabian, A. C. et al. A wide Chandra view of the core of the Perseus cluster. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418, 2154–2164 (2011).
Pedlar, A. et al. The radio structure of NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 246, 477 (1990).
Minkowski, R. Optical investigations of radio sources (introductory lecture). In Proc. Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Vol. 4 (ed. van de Hulst, H. C.) 107–122 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1957).
Conselice, C. J., Gallagher, I., John, S. & Wyse, R. F. G. On the nature of the NGC 1275 system. Astron. J. 122, 2281–2300 (2001).
Fabian, A. C. et al. Magnetic support of the optical emission line filaments in NGC 1275. Nature 454, 968–970 (2008).
Gendron-Marsolais, M. et al. Revealing the velocity structure of the filamentary nebula in NGC 1275 in its entirety. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 479, L28–L33 (2018).
Hatch, N. A., Crawford, C. S., Fabian, A. C. & Johnstone, R. M. Detections of molecular hydrogen in the outer filaments of NGC1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 358, 765–773 (2005).
Lim, J., Ohyama, Y., Yan, C.-H., Ding-V-Trung, & Wang, S.-Y. A molecular hydrogen nebula in the central cD galaxy of the Perseus cluster. Astrophys. J. 744, 112 (2012).
Salomé, P. et al. Cold molecular gas in the Perseus cluster core. Association with X-ray cavity, Hα filaments and cooling flow. Astron. Astrophys. 454, 437–445 (2006).
Lim, J., Ao, Y. & Ding-V-Trung, Radially inflowing molecular gas in NGC 1275 deposited by an X-ray cooling flow in the Perseus cluster. Astrophys. J. 672, 252–265 (2008).
Ho, I. T., Lim, J. & Ding-V-Trung, Multiple radial cool molecular filaments in NGC 1275. Astrophys. J. 698, 1191–1206 (2009).
Fabian, A. C. et al. The energy source of the filaments around the giant galaxy NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 417, 172–177 (2011).
Wilman, R. J., Edge, A. C. & Johnstone, R. M. The nature of the molecular gas system in the core of NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 359, 755–764 (2005).
Scharwächter, J., McGregor, P. J., Dopita, M. A. & Beck, T. L. Kinematics and excitation of the molecular hydrogen accretion disc in NGC 1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429, 2315–2332 (2013).
Nagai, H. et al. The ALMA discovery of the rotating disk and fast outflow of cold molecular gas in NGC 1275. Astrophys. J. 883, 193 (2019).
Salomé, P. et al. Observations of CO in the eastern filaments of NGC 1275. Astron. Astrophys. 483, 793–799 (2008).
Salomé, P. et al. A very extended molecular web around NGC 1275. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A85 (2011).
Fabian, A. C. et al. Do sound waves transport the AGN energy in the Perseus cluster? Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 464, L1–L5 (2017).
Churazov, E., Sunyaev, R., Forman, W. & Böhringer, H. Cooling flows as a calorimeter of active galactic nucleus mechanical power. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 332, 729–734 (2002).
Hatch, N. A., Crawford, C. S., Johnstone, R. M. & Fabian, A. C. On the origin and excitation of the extended nebula surrounding NGC1275. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 433–448 (2006).
Qiu, Y., Bogdanović, T., Li, Y., McDonald, M. & McNamara, B. R. The formation of dusty cold gas filaments from galaxy cluster simulations. Nat. Astron. 4, 900–906 (2020).
Gaspari, M., Temi, P. & Brighenti, F. Raining on black holes and massive galaxies: the top-down multiphase condensation model. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 466, 677–704 (2017).
Bolatto, A. D., Wolfire, M. & Leroy, A. K. The CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 51, 207–268 (2013).
Bregman, J. N., Fabian, A. C., Miller, E. D. & Irwin, J. A. On VI observations of galaxy clusters: evidence for modest cooling flows. Astrophys. J. 642, 746–751 (2006).
Holtzman, J. A. et al. Planetary camera observations of NGC 1275: discovery of a central population of compact massive blue star clusters. Astron. J. 103, 691 (1992).
Lim, J., Wong, E., Ohyama, Y. & Yeung, M. C. H. Recent formation of a spiral disk hosting progenitor globular clusters at the center of the Perseus brightest cluster galaxy. II. Progenitor globular clusters. Astrophys. J. 927, 138 (2022).
Nagai, H. et al. VLBI Monitoring of 3C 84 (NGC 1275) in early phase of the 2005 outburst. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn 62, L11 (2010).
Kino, M. et al. Morphological transition of the compact radio lobe in 3C 84 via the strong jet–cloud collision. Astrophys. J. Lett. 920, L24 (2021).
Hogan, M. T. et al. A comprehensive study of the radio properties of brightest cluster galaxies. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 453, 1201–1222 (2015).
O’Dea, C. P., Dent, W. A. & Balonek, T. J. The 20 year spectral evolution of the radio nucleus of NGC 1275. Astrophys. J. 278, 89–95 (1984).
Dutson, K. L. et al. A non-thermal study of the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 1275 – the gamma-radio connection over four decades. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 442, 2048–2057 (2014).
Paraschos, G. F. et al. A multi-band study and exploration of the radio wave-γ-ray connection in 3C 84. Astron. Astrophys. 669, A32 (2023).
Sault, R. J., Teuben, P. J. & Wright, M. C. H. A retrospective view of MIRIAD. ASP Conf. Ser. 77, 433–436.
Westmeier, T. et al. SOFIA 2 – an automated, parallel H i source finding pipeline for the WALLABY survey. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 506, 3962–3976 (2021).
Lim, J., Dinh-V-Trung, Vrtilek, J., David, L. P. & Forman, W. The role of electron excitation and nature of molecular gas in cluster central elliptical galaxies. Astrophys. J. 850, 31 (2017).
This work is based on reprocessing of the ALMA observations carried out under project number 2017.0.01257.S and which were published in original form by Nagai et al.16.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Nature Astronomy thanks Alastair Edge and Jeremy Lim for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Oosterloo, T., Morganti, R. & Murthy, S. Closing the feedback-feeding loop of the radio galaxy 3C 84.
Nat Astron (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-023-02138-y
Received: 31 March 2023
Accepted: 19 October 2023
Published: 30 November 2023
Nov 30 (Reuters) – Oil prices fell on Thursday after rising by more than 1% earlier in the session after OPEC+ oil producers agreed to voluntary output cuts approaching 2 million barrels per day (bpd) for early next year, with each country announcing separately its voluntary cut.
Brent crude futures for January fell by 50 cents, or 0.6%, to $82.60 a barrel by 11:30 a.m. EDT (1630 GMT). The front-month Brent contract, down about 6% on the month, expires later on Thursday.
The more liquid February contract was down $2.54, or 3.1%, at $80.34.
U.S. West Texas Intermediate crude futures fell by $2.63, or 3.4%, to $75.24, and is down about 9% on the month.
Brent’s premium to U.S. WTI futures hit its highest since January in the session.
Saudi Arabia, Russia and other members of OPEC+, who pump more than 40% of the world’s oil, held a virtual meeting on Thursday to discuss 2024 output amid concerns the market faces a potential surplus.
OPEC+ said the latest agreement would involve cuts approaching 2 million bpd, including Saudi Arabia extending a voluntary cut of 1 million bpd it has had in place since July.
Their output of some 43 million bpd already reflects cuts of about 5 million bpd aimed at supporting prices and stabilising the market.
The additional OPEC+ cuts for the first quarter of 2024 are set to be voluntary, a delegate said. Each country will announce separately its voluntary cut, according to a source familiar with the matter.
But there is a large degree of skepticism on how individual OPEC members will reach those cuts, according to Bob Yawger, director of energy futures at Mizuho.
“This is a very sketchy report – there is a huge question of their credibility in how these cuts will happen,” Yawger said, adding that the UAE is supposed to be increasing production by 200,000 bpd by 2024.
Nigeria has been given a 2024 output quota of 1.5 million barrels per day (bpd), Angola 1.11 million bpd and Congo 0.277 million bpd, a draft statement from OPEC+ seen by Reuters showed.
Russia will cut 500,000 bpd and others will also contribute cuts, one source said.
Algeria’s energy minister told Reuters his country had agreed to curb its output by 50,000 bpd.
OPEC+ oil-producing countries meeting on Thursday to discuss 2024 output levels will convene again next June on 2024 output levels, according to a source familiar with the matter.
The meeting, being held on the same day as global leaders gather in Dubai for the U.N. climate conference, was originally scheduled for last week but was deferred because of disagreements over output quotas for African producers.
The OPEC+ Joint Ministerial Monitoring Committee (JMMC) ended its meeting on Thursday without making a recommendation regarding 2024 output levels, three delegates told Reuters.
The committee met ahead of the wider meeting of ministers from the OPEC+ group of oil-producing nations.
Implementing additional cuts will send prices higher in the immediate future, but the long-term impact is harder to predict, said Tamas Varga of oil broker PVM.
Compliance will be an issue and the global oil balance is probably much less tight than OPEC estimates, he said, citing the latest commercial inventory data out of the United States and the effect on demand from stubbornly high interest rates in many major economies.
Reporting by Laura Sanicola in Washington, Robert Harvey and Natalie Grover in London and Jeslyn Lerh in Singapore
Additional reporting by Laura Sanicola in Washington
Editing by David Goodman, Kirsten Donovan and Lisa Shumaker
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Book Review-The Day Salisbury Fuel Tanks were set ablaze, December 11, 1978
A NEW BOOK AVAILABLE AT: SAM LEVY VILLAGE – BOOK BAZAAR | THE DAY SALISBURY FUEL TANKS WERE SET ABLAZE ON DECEMBER 11 – 1978 | ZIMBABWE’S INVALUABLE HISTORIC TREASURE
UK: Zimbabwe-born Vee Kativhu makes list of 100 most influential … – New Zimbabwe.com
War vets, minister lock horns – NewsDay
Who Is Who On Zimbabwe Digital Wall Of Fame | New Book Release !!!!!!!!!
MSU honours Prof Bhebe – The Herald
Youths key to reducing Kariba overfishing: FAO – NewsDay
Letter to my people: Desperation for validation has reached comic … – The Standard – Zimbabwe
One Zimbabwe Classifieds | ZimMarket
Zimbabwe Market Classifieds | ZimMarket
1 Zimbabwe Market Classifieds | ZimMarket
Linking Buyers To Sellers Is Our Business Tradition