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Closing the feedback-feeding loop of the radio galaxy 3C 84 – Nature.com

Abstract

Gas accretion by a galaxy’s central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and the resultant energetic feedback by the accreting active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the gas in and around a galaxy are two tightly intertwined but competing processes that play a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies. Observations of galaxy clusters have shown how the plasma jets emitted by an AGN heat the intracluster medium, preventing cooling of the cluster gas and thereby the infall of this gas onto the central galaxy. On the other hand, outflows of multiphase gas, driven by the jets, can cool as they rise into the intracluster medium, leading to filaments of colder gas. The fate of this cold gas is unclear, but it has been suggested that it plays a role in feeding the central SMBH. We present the results of reprocessed CO(2-1) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the cold molecular gas in the central regions of NGC 1275, the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster and which hosts the radio-loud AGN 3C 84 (Perseus A). These data show in detail how kiloparsec-sized cold gas filaments resulting from the jet-induced cooling of cluster gas are flowing towards the galaxy centre and how they feed the circum-nuclear accretion disk (100 pc diameter) of the SMBH. Thus, cooled gas can, in this way, play a role in feeding the AGN. These results complete our view of the feedback loop of how an AGN can impact its surroundings and how the effects of this impact maintain the AGN activity.

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Fig. 1: Position–velocity plots illustrating the improvement of the data after reprocessing.
Fig. 2: Total intensity image and velocity field of the CO(2-1) in the central regions of NGC 1275.
Fig. 3: Zoom-in of the CO emission and velocity field in the central regions of NGC 1275.
Fig. 4: Position–velocity plots taken along CO(2-1) filaments accreting onto the CND.
Fig. 5: Position–velocity plot of the CO(2-1) emission after integrating the data cube in declination.
Fig. 6: Position–velocity plot along filament B showing local anomalous velocities.

Data availability

The calibrated data cube is available from https://astrodrive.astro.rug.nl/index.php/s/g1y6QlCeGFd5XiG, or from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Code availability

The data were reduced using the publicly available software MIRIAD (ref. 34) and Sofia-2 (ref. 35).

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Acknowledgements

This work is based on reprocessing of the ALMA observations carried out under project number 2017.0.01257.S and which were published in original form by Nagai et al.16.

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T.O. and R.M. conceived the project. T.O. reduced the data. T.O., R.M. and S.M. carried out the analysis and wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to
Tom Oosterloo.

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Oosterloo, T., Morganti, R. & Murthy, S. Closing the feedback-feeding loop of the radio galaxy 3C 84.
Nat Astron (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-023-02138-y

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  • Received: 31 March 2023

  • Accepted: 19 October 2023

  • Published: 30 November 2023

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-023-02138-y

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  • Oil prices fell sharply on output cut compliance skepticism

Nov 30 (Reuters) – Oil prices fell on Thursday after rising by more than 1% earlier in the session after OPEC+ oil producers agreed to voluntary output cuts approaching 2 million barrels per day (bpd) for early next year, with each country announcing separately its voluntary cut.

Brent crude futures for January fell by 50 cents, or 0.6%, to $82.60 a barrel by 11:30 a.m. EDT (1630 GMT). The front-month Brent contract, down about 6% on the month, expires later on Thursday.

The more liquid February contract was down $2.54, or 3.1%, at $80.34.

U.S. West Texas Intermediate crude futures fell by $2.63, or 3.4%, to $75.24, and is down about 9% on the month.

Brent’s premium to U.S. WTI futures hit its highest since January in the session.

Saudi Arabia, Russia and other members of OPEC+, who pump more than 40% of the world’s oil, held a virtual meeting on Thursday to discuss 2024 output amid concerns the market faces a potential surplus.

OPEC+ said the latest agreement would involve cuts approaching 2 million bpd, including Saudi Arabia extending a voluntary cut of 1 million bpd it has had in place since July.

Their output of some 43 million bpd already reflects cuts of about 5 million bpd aimed at supporting prices and stabilising the market.

The additional OPEC+ cuts for the first quarter of 2024 are set to be voluntary, a delegate said. Each country will announce separately its voluntary cut, according to a source familiar with the matter.

But there is a large degree of skepticism on how individual OPEC members will reach those cuts, according to Bob Yawger, director of energy futures at Mizuho.

“This is a very sketchy report – there is a huge question of their credibility in how these cuts will happen,” Yawger said, adding that the UAE is supposed to be increasing production by 200,000 bpd by 2024.

Nigeria has been given a 2024 output quota of 1.5 million barrels per day (bpd), Angola 1.11 million bpd and Congo 0.277 million bpd, a draft statement from OPEC+ seen by Reuters showed.

Russia will cut 500,000 bpd and others will also contribute cuts, one source said.

Algeria’s energy minister told Reuters his country had agreed to curb its output by 50,000 bpd.

OPEC+ oil-producing countries meeting on Thursday to discuss 2024 output levels will convene again next June on 2024 output levels, according to a source familiar with the matter.

The meeting, being held on the same day as global leaders gather in Dubai for the U.N. climate conference, was originally scheduled for last week but was deferred because of disagreements over output quotas for African producers.

The OPEC+ Joint Ministerial Monitoring Committee (JMMC) ended its meeting on Thursday without making a recommendation regarding 2024 output levels, three delegates told Reuters.

The committee met ahead of the wider meeting of ministers from the OPEC+ group of oil-producing nations.

Implementing additional cuts will send prices higher in the immediate future, but the long-term impact is harder to predict, said Tamas Varga of oil broker PVM.

Compliance will be an issue and the global oil balance is probably much less tight than OPEC estimates, he said, citing the latest commercial inventory data out of the United States and the effect on demand from stubbornly high interest rates in many major economies.

Reporting by Laura Sanicola in Washington, Robert Harvey and Natalie Grover in London and Jeslyn Lerh in Singapore
Additional reporting by Laura Sanicola in Washington
Editing by David Goodman, Kirsten Donovan and Lisa Shumaker

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Thomson Reuters

Reports on oil and energy, including refineries, markets and renewable fuels. Previously worked at Euromoney Institutional Investor and CNN.

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